The manufacturing of semiconductors, or chips, has been one of the most important technological advancements of the last century. Chips are present in almost every electronic device, from smartphones to cars, and their production has become increasingly complex as technology progresses.
One of the most significant challenges in chip manufacturing is miniaturization. As the demand for smaller and more powerful devices increases, the size of the chips must decrease. However, reducing the size of the components on a chip can cause problems such as heat dissipation and signal interference.